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was Alfonso D'Albuquerque,1 who in A.D. 1507 started
from Socotra with a squadron of seven ships to attack
Hormuz. He coasted along Arabia, sacking the ports,
including Maskat. To modern ideas his cruelty was
repulsive, prisoners of both sexes being mutilated with
the object of inspiring fear. Everywhere he was success-
ful, and passing Musandam, which is termed Cape Macinde
in the Commentaries^ he approached Hormuz with flags
flying and artillery ready. The point was doubled, and
to the dismay of his captains a large number of ships were
sighted in the harbour, supported by a powerful force
drawn up on shore. D'Albuquerque boldly attacked the
ships, and most of them, deserted by their cowardly crews,
fell into his hands. After this easy success he proceeded
to land his small force, whereupon the boy king submitted
and agreed to pay tribute at the rate of 5000 per
The Persian Demand for Tribute.A few days after the
ratification of the treaty, the king sent to inform D'Albu-
querque that a representative of Shah Ismail had reached
the shore opposite the island, and had sent to demand the
tribute due to Persia. D'Albuquerque replied that " he
might tell the king that this kingdom of Ormuz belonged
to the King of Portugal, gained by his fleet and his men,
and that he might know of a certainty that if any tribute
should be paid to any other king, except the king D.
Manoel, his lord, he would take the government of the
kingdom and give it to some one who would not be
afraid of the Xeque IsmaeL He then sent to the ships
for cannon-balls, guns, matchlocks, and grenades, and told
him to say to the king that he might send all these to
the captain of the Xeque Ismael, for that was the sort of
money wherewith the King of Portugal had ordered his
captain to pay the tribute of that kingdom that was under
his mastery and command."2 Thus with Shah Ismail
began the connexion between Portugal and Persia, which
terminated in disaster for the invaders a little more than
a century later.
1 Commentaries of Alfonso Dalboqucrque, ed, by Birch for the Hakluyt Society.
2 Commentaries, vol. i. p. 145.